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Jobs For Therapists: How To Choose A Specialization

September 4, 2023


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Whether you are considering a career as a therapist or are nearing the end of your education to become a therapist, choosing a specialization can be daunting. With dozens of therapy techniques, modalities, and areas of specialization to pick from, it can be challenging to choose a specific path forward. 

Here, we will break the process down into an easy-to-follow, step-by-step guide to help simplify the decision-making process. By taking a methodical approach as you narrow down your options, set goals, and pursue a new path, you can ensure you make a choice that suits your needs and strengths, setting you up for a lifetime of passion and commitment to your work.

Step 1: Assess Your Interests And Strengths 

When deciding on a specialization, you may begin by taking an inventory of your passions and interests. Identify which aspects of the field appeal most to you, whether it’s working with a certain age group, tackling specific mental health issues, or working toward a particular outcome for a certain type of client. 

You might also consider your aptitudes and weaknesses, as different specializations often require unique skill sets. Some therapists, for example, may thrive in family or couples counseling roles, while others might prefer the analytical aspect of traditional one-on-one talk therapy. 

Step 2: Research Specialty Areas

Each area of specialization may offer its own set of benefits and drawbacks for therapists. Before deciding on a specialty area, it can be important to conduct thorough research on each, weighing its pros and cons, as well as other factors like pay, job availability, required training and education, and licensure. 

Additionally, you may consider the emotional toll that certain specializations might take, which could interfere with your long-term job satisfaction. Bear in mind, however, that many therapists thrive in roles that many others find challenging, and with consistent self-care and professional development, you may also find certain types of jobs rewarding and fulfilling.

Some common specialty areas include:

  • Clinical Therapy: Clinical therapists typically work one-on-one with clients to diagnose and treat mental health disorders. They may incorporate a variety of therapeutic techniques, helping clients implement individualized treatment plans. 
  • Clinical Psychology: Clinical psychologists hold advanced, doctorate-level degrees. They can offer similar services as clinical therapists, though may be more involved in the academic side of mental health, such as research or teaching.
  • Couples Therapy: Couples therapists and marriage counselors work with romantic partners to resolve conflict, improve communication, and move toward stronger relationships.
  • Family Therapy: Family therapists specialize in working toward enhanced relationships between family members, helping them navigate challenging family dynamics, resolve contentious situations, and improve their communication skills. 
  • Social Work: In addition to providing counseling services, social workers often assist and advocate for clients with issues like housing, employment, and social services.
  • Child and Adolescent Therapy: Child therapists focus on the mental, emotional, and developmental needs of young people. They may employ specific, age-appropriate interventions such as play therapy.
  • Addiction Therapy: Addiction therapists help individuals with substance use disorders and behavioral addictions. They may work in private or group practices as well as inpatient and outpatient treatment programs.
  • Trauma Therapy: Trauma therapists treat those who have experienced psychological trauma. They may use methods like EMDR or trauma-focused CBT to help individuals with PTSD and other trauma-related mental or emotional health concerns.
  • Grief Counseling: Grief counselors work with individuals who have experienced a significant loss, such as a divorce or the death of a loved one. 
  • LGBTQ+ Therapy: LGBTQ-friendly therapists offer a safe space for those in the LGBTQ+ community to explore issues related to sexual orientation, gender expression, and identity. 
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Step 3: Assess Your Preferred Lifestyle And Job Expectations

As you research and explore different specialty areas, it may also be worth reflecting on your lifestyle and job preferences. Therapists can work in a wide variety of clinical settings, from schools and hospitals to residential or rehabilitation facilities. Private or group practice is another option for therapists, which may allow therapists to interface with a variety of different types of clients before niching down further.

Consider what type of environment you can see yourself working in, keeping in mind the various pros and cons of each type of role. Social workers, for example, often work in high-pressure environments such as hospitals and social service agencies, which, while rewarding, may present unique challenges. Private practice therapists, on the other hand, often benefit from greater control over their caseload, though they may take on the added responsibility of running a business. 

Step 4: Consider Your Life Experiences

Wisdom gained from life experience can often play a crucial role in what kind of therapy specialization you choose to pursue. If, for example, you have a history of addiction or compulsive behavior, you may be able to offer clients valuable perspective, empathy, and understanding as an addiction counselor. Similarly, personal experience with issues like grief, trauma, or family dynamics may draw you toward those areas of specialization.

It may also be worth considering whether you can offer unique services to those who share aspects of your background or identity; for example, LGBTQ+ clients often feel most comfortable with an LGBTQ+ therapist, while individuals experiencing a faith crisis or recovering from religious trauma may prefer a therapist who shares a particular faith background.

Step 6: Research The Job Market

With a broad understanding of the types of jobs for therapists, you may narrow your focus by researching the job markets for the specialty area(s) you are considering. Note that some specializations may be in greater demand in certain geographic areas, so consider exploring job opportunities locally and in other cities or regions if you’re open to relocating.

You can also utilize job boards and internet forums to help you gain a clearer understanding of what you can expect in terms of salary, caseload, and work environment. Using professional networking sites to connect with therapists and counselors working in the areas you are considering may give you valuable insights and guidance as well.

Step 7: Making A Decision

With a well-rounded understanding of your job prospects, you may feel comfortable making a decision and setting some short- and long-term career goals. You can then begin researching possible training and educational pathways. This may involve choosing a university for undergrad or graduate school as well as any necessary certifications. Check with your state or province’s licensing board to ascertain which degrees and qualifications you will need to become licensed in your state.

It might also be worth looking into certification programs, continuing education courses, and professional development workshops to help you learn specific techniques that may help you thrive in your specialty area. These can allow you to establish yourself in your area of interest and market your services more effectively.

Step 8: Pursuing Education And Training

With clear goals and established benchmarks, you can feel confident as you pursue your chosen educational pathway. Though you might encounter obstacles as you complete rigorous education and training, your sense of purpose and direction can help you develop emotional resilience. 

Once you begin gaining clinical experience in a specialty you love, you can look forward to a lifetime of continuous learning and professional development. Some ways to stay at the forefront of your field include attending workshops, reading new literature, and engaging in academic research. 

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Step 9: Constantly Adapt Your Therapeutic Approach

With consistent effort and experience, you may expand your therapeutic toolkit by using a variety of different therapeutic approaches and combining elements of various types of therapy to offer clients a unique, personalized, holistic approach. For example, you may incorporate elements of DBT into your CBT approach or apply Gestalt therapy techniques in your trauma therapy practice. 

By constantly learning and adapting your approach, you can stay aligned with the latest evidence-based practices, ensuring you remain professionally fulfilled and competitive in your field. Being cognizant of new niches in the market, such as for a particular population or condition that is gaining attention—may help you specialize further and meet society’s emerging needs. With continuous learning and adaptation, you can find long-term success as a therapist. 

Using Online Therapy To Navigate Your Career Path

Feeling indecisive or struggling to make a decision about your career? In this case, it could be helpful to speak with an online career expert about your options. BetterHelp is an online therapy platform that can connect you with a provider from anywhere by using phone calls, video chats, or in-app messaging. Speaking with someone who understands your field may help you feel more equipped to make an informed decision that feels right for you. 

The Efficacy Of Online Therapy In Career Decisions

Research has continuously proven the efficacy of online therapy. In one study, researchers found that an online career counseling intervention successfully helped individuals trying to make career choices. Participants were split into two groups:  a control group and an online therapy group. Those who were in the online group had higher scores than the control group when it came to decision-making about their careers. Additionally, individuals with higher levels of hardiness and psychological capital had elevated scores on career decision-making within the online group, but this wasn’t true of those in the control group who had these same traits.


Pursuing your education and career goals often involves significant reflection and research. It can be important to take inventory of your aptitudes, desires, and goals as a therapist, then research different possible career paths to find one that resonates with you. Once you have established a clear direction, you can commit to a path and pursue it with confidence. Along the way, you can gain the knowledge, wisdom, and experience necessary to continue carving out your niche and perfecting your approach. If you are a therapist interested in deepening your knowledge of the field, consider signing up for a free continuing education course on Further, if you’re struggling to decide on the career path or specialty that’s right for you, consider speaking with an expert through BetterHelp.